It is through the lens of this framework, which is essentially a centrifugal movement of backing up from the text towards the archetype, that the social function of literary criticism becomes apparent. While acknowledging the grave weaknesses of much Jungian writing on literature as “unsubtle and rigid application of preconceived psychological notions and schemes” resulting in “particularly ill-judged or distorted readings,” van Meurs still finds that “sensitively, flexibly and cautiously used, Jungian psychological theory may stimulate illuminating literary interpretations” (14-15). • -- "Carl Gustav Jung." Frye, Northrop. Richard II, the hero who dies with honor; and many others. From the theorists, dissertations, articles, and books, often traditionally academic in orientation, appeared; the productions of the practitioners are chronicled and critiqued in van Meurs’s bibliography. “Criticism can be broken down into two … male symbols. The context of a genre determines how a symbol or image is to be interpreted. ; or in the case of Gandalf, the Norse figure Odin. As Hillman puts it, Corbin’s insight that Jung’s “mundus archetypalis” is also the “mundus imaginalis” that corresponds to the Islamic “alam al-mithl” (3) was an early move toward “a reappraisal of psychology itself as an activity of poesis” (24). Phallic symbols (towers, mountain peaks, snakes, knives, swords, etc.) (If winter has come, can spring be far behind?) Issues of genre, period, and language were ignored or subjected to gross generalization as Jung searched for universals in texts as disparate as the fourth-century Shepherd of Hermas, the Divine Comedy, Francesco Colonna’s Hypnerotomachia Poliphili (1499), E. T. A. Hoffman’s tales, Pierre Benoit’s L’Atlantide (1919-20), and Henry Wadsworth Longfellow’s “Hiawatha,” as well as works by Carl Spitteler and William Blake. Further, myth critics, aligned with writers in comparative anthropology and philosophy, are said to include Frazer, Jessie Weston, Leslie Fiedler, Ernst Cassirer, Claude Lévi-Strauss, Richard Chase, Joseph Campbell, Philip Wheelwright, and Francis Fergusson. Northrop Frye, Simulation, and the Creation of a "Human World": http://www.transparencynow.com/introfry2.htm. And new theories increasingly give credence to the requirement, historically asserted by Jungian readers, that each text elicit a personal, affective, and not “merely intellectual” response. Jung and the Humanities: Toward a Hermeneutics of Culture. Frye, more devout though oddly less Biblical than Ruskin, is probably best thought of as Ruskin a century later, though centered, unlike Ruskin, wholly upon literary study. Archetypal literary criticism was given impetus by Maud Bodkin’s Archetypal Patterns in Poetry (1934) and flourished especially during the 150s and 1960s. Northrop Frye would later ensure that archetypal criticism remained in the forefront of literary analysis with his Anatomy of Criticism, published in 1957. The tragic mineral realm is noted for being a desert, ruins, or “of sinister geometrical images” (Frye 1456). Frye’s thesis in “The Archetypes of Literature” remains largely unchanged in Anatomy of Criticism. Home › Archetypal Criticism › Archetypal Criticism, By Nasrullah Mambrol on October 22, 2020 • ( 0 ). As for the tragic, vegetation is of a wild forest, or as being barren. 3 - 48 New York: Garland Publishing, 1995. Spring - rebirth; genre/comedy. Vincent B. Leitch. The quintessential journey archetype in Western culture is arguably Homer’s Odyssey Discuss. Eve from the story of Genesis or Pandora from Greek mythology are two such figures. Freud's symbolism/archetypes: • Frye, Northrop. Thus “archetype” is recognized as the “tendency to form and reform images in relation to certain kinds of repeated experience,” which may vary in individual cultures, authors, and readers (Lauter and Rupprecht 13-14). Frazer’s and Jung’s texts formed the basis of two allied but ultimately different courses of influence on literary history. These critics tended to emphasize the occurrence of mythical patterns in literature, on the assumption that myths are closer t the elemental archetype than the artful manipulation of sophisticated writers. Jung on Mythology. Frye’s work breaks from both Frazer and Jung in such a way that it is distinct from its anthropological and psychoanalytical precursors. Apart from him, the other prominent practitioners of various modes of archetypal criticism were G. Wilson Knight, Robert Graves, Philip Wheelwright, Richard Chase, Leslie Fiedler, and Joseph Campbell. Wate r: birth-death-resurrection; creation; purification and redemption; fertility and growth. The star-crossed lovers - This is the young couple joined by love but unexpectedly parted by fate. [Tom Jones, Darcy in P&P (breaking of Lizzy’s sis’s relationship, elopement), Technology in BNW, Tess for death of Prince, giving birth to Sorrow, …] 6. • Segal, Robert A. Archetypal Criticism - Northrop Frye - January 28, 2017 In literary criticism the term archetype denotes recurrent narratives designs, patterns of action, character-types, themes, and images which are identifiable in a wide variety of works of literature, as well as in myths, dreams, and even social rituals. This article, then, treats the only form of literary theory and criticism consistent with and derived directly from the psychological principles advanced by Jung. [Katherina in Taming of Shrew, Paul’s mother in S&L, Lizzy’s mother in P&P. Archetypal criticism was at it most popular in the 1940s and 1950s largely due to the work of condition literary critic Northrop Frye. In the 2010s, archetypal literary criticism is no longer widely practiced; there have not been any major recent developments in the field (with the possible exception of biblical literary criticism), but it still has a place in the tradition of literary studies. In his Anatomy of Criticism Frye explained his particular brand of literary criticism by building a structure based on the established approaches to interpreting the Bible. [citation needed] Archetypal criticism peaked in popularity in the 1940s and 1950s, largely due to the work of Canadian literary critic Northrop Frye (1912-1991). (Available in the UHS Library), The Northrop Frye International Literary Festival: http://www.northropfrye.com/home.htm • Knapp, Bettina L. New York: Norton, 2001. Within the overarching archetypal mythos of each of these genres, individual works of literature also play variations upon a number of more limited archetypes – that is, conventional patterns and types that literature shares with social rituals as well a with theology, history, law, and , in fact, all “discursive verbal structures.” Viewed arhetypally, Frye asserted, literature turns out to play an essential role in refashioning the impersonal material universe into an alternative verbal universe that is intelligible ad viable, because it is adapted to universal human needs and concerns. Northrop Frye’s Anatomy of Criticism (1957) introduced the archetypal approach called Myth Criticism, combining the typological interpretation of the Bible and the conception of imagination prevalent in the writings of William Blake. • Lastly, the water realm is represented by rivers in the comedic. Listed below are some of the most common archetypes in each category. Such myths are the archetypes of comedy, pastoral and idyll. Arguments about the Contemporary Dilemma with Frye’s Archetypal Literary Criticism Rising sun: birth, creation, enlightenment. • Animals in the comedic genres are docile and pastoral (e.g. Indeed, myth criticism seems singularly unaffected by any of the archetypal theorists who have remained faithful to the origins and traditions of depth, especially analytical, psychology—James Hillman, Henri Corbin, Gilbert Durand, Rafael Lopez-Pedraza, Evangelos Christou. A Glossary of Literary Terms. Frye admits that his schema in “The Archetypes of Literature” is simplistic, but makes room for exceptions by noting that there are neutral archetypes. 1. Example: Simon from William Golding's "The Lord of the Flies". Archetypal theory then took shape principally in the multidisciplinary journal refounded by Hillman in 1970 in Zurich, Spring: An Annual of Archetypal Psychology and Jungian Thought. But Jos van Meurs’s critically annotated 1988 bibliography, Jungian Literary Criticism, 1920-1980, effectively challenges this claim. • Seasonal myths appears in hamlet . • Cities, temples, or precious stones represent the comedic mineral realm. And concomitantly, on which of these levels was the reader affected? R. F. C. Hull, 2 vois., 1973-75). • Comedy is aligned with spring because the genre of comedy is characterized by the birth of the hero, revival and resurrection. Numbers: • Romance and summer are paired together because summer is the culmination of life in the seasonal calendar, and the romance genre culminates with some sort of triumph, usually a marriage. This page was last modified on 17 June 2009, at 00:21. For Frye, the death-rebirth myth that Frazer sees manifest in agriculture and the harvest is not ritualistic since it is involuntary, and therefore, must be done. Archetypal Criticism – Northrop Frye Summary. Confirmation of this theory was Jung’s reading of Faust: part 1 was “psychological”; part 2, “visionary.”. Fort Worth: HBJ, 1993. Sorry, your blog cannot share posts by email. We can only learn about literature. This heuristic distinction was formed, however, solely on psychobiographical grounds: Did the text originate in, and remain principally shaped by, the author’s experience of consciousness and the personal unconscious or his or her experience at the level of the archetypal collective unconscious? Ed. 4 Seasons represent variations of the 'Monomyth': Spring (Comedy) Summer (Romance) Autumn (Tragedy) Winter (Irony & Satire) The archetypes are related by the theme of Van Meurs also does a service by resurrecting successful but neglected early studies, such as Elizabeth Drew’s of T. S. Eliot (1949), and discovering value even in reductionist and impressionistic studies, such as June Singer’s of Blake. James Baird, “Jungian Psychology in Criticism: Theoretical Problems,” Literary Criticism and Psychology (ed. Northrop Frye: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Northrop_Frye • Walker, Steven F. Jung and the Jungians on Myth. . Serpent (snake, worm): symbol of energy and pure force (libido); evil, corruption, sensuality, destruction. (Search for Holy Grail, Search for Sita, Nal-Damaanti, Savitri for Satyakam’s life, Shakuntala in Kalidas, Don Quixote, Jude, …) They also attest to his self-confessed lack of interest in literature: “I feel not naturally drawn to what one calls literature, but I am strangely attracted by genuine fiction, i.e., fantastical invention” (Letters 1:509). This is my presentations of Symbolism in Archetypal criticism of Northrop Frye. Anatomy of Criticism: Four Essays. This explains his fascination with a text like Rider Haggard’s novel She: The History of an Adventure (1886-87), with its unmediated representation of the “anima.” As Jung himself noted: “Literary products of highly dubious merit are often of the greatest interest to the psychologist” (Collected 15:87-88). Fall - death/dying; genre/tragedy. In addition, he modified and extended his concept over the many decades of his professional life, often insisting that “archetype” named a process, a perspective, and not a content, although this flexibility was lost through the codifying, nominalizing tendencies of his followers. • For the realm of vegetation, the comedic is, again, pastoral but also represented by gardens, parks, roses and lotuses. Example: Zeena from Edith Wharton's "Ethan Frome". In Re-Visioning Psychology, the published text of his 1972 Yale Terry Lectures (the same lecture series Jung gave in 1937), Hillman locates the archetypal neither “in the physiology of the brain, the structure of language, the organization of society, nor the analysis of behavior, but in the processes of imagination” (xi). plot forms, or organizing structural principles), correspondent to the four seasons in the cycle of the natural world, are incorporated in the four major genres of comedy (spring), romance (summer), tragedy (autumn), and satire (winter). There are two basic categories in Frye’s framework, i.e., comedic and tragic. It is a strong life force, and is often depicted as a living, reasoning force. 987 - 990 In addition, many powerfully heuristic Jungian concepts, such as “synchronicity,” have yet to be tested in literary contexts. [ Tess and Angel, Heer – Ranjha, Sheeri – Farhad, ….] 3. Lecturer in English PSC Solved Question Paper, Alchemy of Discourse: An Archetypal Approach to Language. {Water movie and novel by Bapsi Sidhwa, Death by Water, polluted River in Waste Land…], Sun (fire and sky are closely related): creative energy; thinking, enlightenment, wisdom, spiritual vision. Toril Moi, trans. It has been argued that Frye’s version of archetypal criticism strictly categorizes works based on their genres, which determines how an archetype is to be interpreted in a text. Ed. In contrast, the tragic human world is of isolation, tyranny, and the fallen hero. The hero - The courageous figure, the one who's always running in and saving the day. • Northrop Frye developed a theory of literature based on myths and archetypes. • Rivers: death and rebirth (baptism); the flowing of time into eternity; transitional phases of the life cycle. Northrop Frye rose to international prominence with the publication ofAnatomy of Criticism, in 1957 and it firmly established him as one of the most brilliant, original and influential of modern critics. The critical annotations are astute and, given their brevity, surprisingly thorough and suggestive. With some of its advocates supported through early publication of their work in the journal Spring, feminist archetypal theory and criticism of literature and the arts emerged fullblown in three texts: Annis Pratt’s Archetypal Patterns in Women’s Fiction (1981), which self-consciously evoked and critiqued Maud Bodkin’s 1934 text; Estella Lauter’s Women as Mythmakers: Poetry and Visual Art by Twentieth Century Women (1984); and Estella Lauter and Carol Schreier Rupprecht’s Feminist Archetypal Theory: Interdisciplinary Re-Visions of Jungian Thought (1985). Contemporary critics view Frye ’ s framework, i.e., comedic and.! 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